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Smart grid interactive tool. Strategic Energy Technologies Information System. A modern energy infrastructure is crucial for an integrated energy market and to enable the EU to meet its broader climate and energy goals. Europe must modernise and expand its energy network to absorb energy from renewable sources and secure supplies everywhere.

This requires considerable investment in the existing gas and electricity networks, with rapid development of their interconnections. Indeed, security of supply, competitiveness or sustainability goals will never be met without resilient, reliable and smart energy networks. The JRC aims to provide a solid and comprehensive understanding of energy security in support of EU policy, notably in relation to fossil fuels mainly gas and oil and power systems.

Europe needs to invest in the modernisation of its energy infrastructure. Systems have to be upgraded and reshaped to foster sustainability, increase energy efficiency and enhance grid security. As the EU power grid is one of the largest and most complex systems in the world, this is a major technological, financial, societal and regulatory challenge. The JRC is an international reference point on digital power grid research and innovation, as it monitors the developments, operates a smart grid interoperability lab, analyses the technological, social and economic factors involved and contributes to disseminate information on smarter electricity systems.

It's active on simulating the operation of the power system and the functioning of European electricity markets. Given the importance of hydrocarbons in the EU's energy mix, the strong dependence on foreign supplies, and the geopolitical uncertainty in many producer regions, especially in the case of natural gas, it is vital to analyse the infrastructural requirements for guaranteeing the satisfaction of the European needs. In this context, the JRC develops and implements models to study the EU gas transmission system and to perform techno-economic analyses of energy security.

These models and methods enable the identification and analysis of potential crises affecting the gas infrastructure and markets.

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The JRC also supports Member States developing preventive action plans to avoid these crises and setting up emergency preparedness scenarios in case there is an infrastructure or market disruption. Most of the gas consumed in the EU is imported from other countries, which demands the use of a complex Gas Transmission Network in order to make gas accessible to different consumers. All its components are subject to different hazards and threats of different sources which may seriously jeopardise the access of EU consumers to gas. The most rigorous way to study the potential effect of different disruption scenarios on the EU gas transmission network and its resilience is by means of models.

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Energy security

These models must be able to simulate the network behaviour reasonably well under normal conditions and under gas disruptions and crises. ProGasNet is a mass balance model with a granularity at the level of facility that includes Monte Carlo capabilities to generate facility random failures. The three models allow the simulation of gas crises. The Regulation aims at safeguarding the security of gas supply by ensuring the proper and continuous functioning of the internal natural gas market, by allowing exceptional measures when the market is not able to meet the gas needs of the EU and by establishing the responsibilities among the different stakeholders involved.

Plans have to be developed at national level and contain regional chapters. The purpose of the Risk Assessment is to identify the set of scenarios that contribute most to risks of the gas system. The Standards aim at ensuring the supply of gas under specified system stress conditions failure of largest infrastructure under severe weather conditions, among others.

The goal of the PAP is to decrease the risk by different means. Finally, the Emergency Plan has to be designed in such a manner that the effects of gas crises are mitigated as much as possible should they occur.

Economic & Resource Security Series

An important aspect of the hydrocarbon sector regards the functioning of their markets, the interaction with other sectors, and the current and future energy infrastructure. In this context, DG JRC develops and uses models to provide an in-depth understanding of the energy system. In particular, DG JRC conducts techno-economic assessment to evaluate supply, demand, prices, security of supply, competition, market integration etc.

For this purpose, crisis scenarios, new investments, changes in regulation, new cross-border interconnections, changing targets etc. These activities are supported through the development and application of energy system modelling platforms e. Such analyses contribute to the evaluation of international and European energy systems and the integration of other resources such as unconventional gas and oil resources, biogas, gases generated from processes power to gas H 2 , methane.

In the wake of the shale gas boom in the USA, many EU Member States and other European countries have decided to assess their own unconventional resource potential by using a variety of methods, assumptions and source data.

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These efforts have resulted in widely ranging estimates lacking consistency and thus hampering a reliable insight in the European potential including associated risk factors and a good comparison among countries. Both have invested significantly in renewable energy technologies, and the U. Although coal remains a significant source of energy in China, clean energy has expanded significantly, and the country has persistently topped renewable investment tables in recent years. Of the three dimensions of the trilemma, the sustainability dimension has shown the most marked improvement at the global level, reflecting the increasing focus on energy sector decarbonization.

The World Energy Trilemma reveals much to celebrate. Access to affordable energy is increasing rapidly, and energy sectors are decarbonizing. More countries are managing to balance the trilemma and achieve progress across the three dimensions.

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But despite this progress, the world remains way off track to meet its climate goals. This means the global energy transition must be complete within the next 30 to 40 years. However, global emissions are still rising, and although renewables are ramping up, it is from a small base, and we are burning more fossil fuels than ever before see chart below. In short, progress on energy sustainability needs to increase dramatically.

Policymakers can take heart from the previous 20 years, which show that decarbonization has not undermined progress on security and affordability of energy. But they face new challenges as the energy transition accelerates. How will power sectors cope with saturating levels of intermittent renewables and increasing demand from electric vehicles? Will the countries that have displayed remarkable progress on improving access to energy be able to maintain that progress without increasing their dependency on fossil fuels?

How will energy security evolve in a future of increasing electrification, more extreme weather and heightened cyber threats? The next 20 years of the energy trilemma will not look like the last. Twitter LinkedIn. BRINK has refreshed its look! Check out our homepage and its new features. Most Read.

This framing of oil and national security as a question of supply predates the and crises, dating back to the turn of the last century when U. The s was never a useful heuristic for thinking about energy and national security, and the structure of energy supply and demand have changed markedly in the last 30 years.

Most importantly, retaining this worldview obscures more important issues of oil and national security. We focus on physical oil supplies rather than price. Over time the core focus of energy security has expanded to include issues such as affordability.

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But we argue that when thinking about national security, it makes more sense to adopt a narrow approach by returning to the core concern of whether an actor can force a sustained reduction in the supply of energy. When thinking about national security, it makes more sense to adopt a narrow approach by returning to the core concern of whether an actor can force a sustained reduction in the supply of energy.

Affordability, in contrast, varies widely based on economic circumstances. For example, the two major oil price peaks in inflation adjusted terms were December and June Yet while the peak in led to long lines at gas stations in the United States and a more general global energy crisis, the peak in though economically painful did not produce anything similar.

Far better to focus on the concrete and measurable risk to actual supply of oil rather than price.

The European Energy Security Strategy- long version

Second, the oil supply chain is resilient. Third, and most important, a supply chain analysis of the potential for coercion in the oil market shows it is the United States that dominates supply routes in the international oil market. The concentration of market power in oil is best understood through an analysis of the supply chain.

Upstream production i.